Verified Few-Layer Graphene

Most of the products labeled “Graphene” on the market are not actually graphene. Rather they are thin flakes of graphite that can be up to a few hundred layer thick.

GrapheneUP® built the first industrial production of few-layer graphene with the largest production capacity in Europe

Main Features and
Advantages of GUP®

Real few-layer

Our graphene GUP®, with a no.
of layers between 2 and 5, is
classified as few-layer graphene
in accordance with ISO/TS 80004-13:2017 and ISO/TS 21356-1:2021 standards.

lateral size

The large average size brings higher thermal conductivity due to the smaller total thermal boundary resistances from the interface area.

Very low
oxygen content

A high C:O ratio, over 99, improves thermal and electrical conductivity in graphene-based applications.

Confirmation letter
of compliance

GUP® few-layer graphene has been recognized to fulfill the requirements of the EU’s RoHS compliant (Directive 2011/65/EC).

aspect ratio

Higher aspect ratio (length over thickness) nanofillers are favored to establish a connecting pathway for electrons to travel through the specimen at a low percolation threshold.

Low defect

The defects of graphene have a direct impact
on the properties of the graphene.

SEM Images
of GUP®

Raman Spectroscopy

Dynamic Laser Scattering (DLS)

TEM Images of GUP®

Unique Properties
of GUP®

GUP® is a few-layer graphene with low oxygen content produced with a one-step process of direct, not oxidative, exfoliation of graphite.

GUP®’ properties make it the right solution to improve specific characteristics of many materials and products.
We adhere to a rigorous quality control procedure to evaluate the characteristics of our flake graphene GUP®. We make characterization of each batch to meet the stringent criteria set forth by ISO/TS 80004-13:2017 and ISO/TS 21356-1:2021 standards.

of graphene

atomic wt%
of carbon content

soccer fields are covered with 1
kg of GUP®

the lateral size

< 2.1
apparent thickness

atomic wt%
of oxygen content

> 120
the contact angle

~ 10
Dv (10)

of GUP® in 1 m3

< 0.05
atomic wt%
of total metals

< 0.12

~ 25
Dv (50)

> 98.5

< 1
total silicon

< 0.02
moisture content

~ 45
Dv (90)


GUP® makes a difference in customer’s formulations, improving product characteristics and sustainability profile


Ι 0.025 %

of GUP® increases the flexural strength of concrete by more than 20%   


Ι 0.03 %

of GUP® reduces the COF in lubricants by over 30%       


Ι 0.15 %

of GUP® in coatings dramatically enhances corrosion performance protection

Ι 0.015 %

of GUP® in epoxy resin increases the Young’s Module by over 40%


Ι 0.007 %

of GUP® increases the impact resistance of PP by over 80%       


GUP®: Health and Safety

As one of the world’s largest producer of graphene, GrapheneUP® is taking the lead in raising transparency of the nature of few-layer graphene and their responsible handling. GrapheneUP® places the protection of its employees, customers, consumers and the environment at the heart of its concerns and has chosen to adopt a fully transparent communication policy concerning the validated data to hand on hygiene, health and environmental aspects.

The company has an ongoing policy of initiating internal as well as external independent testing and research, and it has already accumulated a significant knowledge base on the morphology of graphene, on their safe handling and use in the workplace, and on compliance with the regulatory requirements of the EU.

In 2018 GrapheneUP® was awarded certificates confirming the compliance of its production process with the requirements of the ISO 9001:2015, ISO 14001:2015 and ISO ISO 45001:2018 standards. GrapheneUP’s workers assume responsibility for the ethical, safe, and sustainable development of emerging technologies, in particular by steering away from severe risks.

Graphene GUP® Morphology
Our few layer Graphene GUP® has several advantages in terms of health and safety concerns:

    • large lateral size (small lateral dimensions are more frequently associated with toxicological effects)
    • high C:O ratio.

These are 2 key parameters that classify our graphene as a friendly material in terms of health and safety and eco-toxicity based on the present knowledge on this topic. For further and more detailed information, please refer to this paper: ACS Nano 2018, 12, 10582−10620. Literature shows that graphene has less impact than graphene oxide on living systems.

Handling and Processing of graphene GUP®
In 2019, GrapheneUP® conducted a number of case studies in the workplace to measure the possible exposure of inhaled nanoparticles with workers. The results showed that the measured concentration of graphene in the working environment was at least 10 times below the concentration limit accepted by law (361/2007 Sb).

Confirmation letter of compliance
GUP® few-layer graphene has been recognized to fulfill the requirements of the EU’s RoHS (Restriction of the use of Hazardous Substances) compliant according to the definitions and restrictions given by The European Parliament, Directive 2011/65/EC, standards that are aimed at reducing the harmful impact of substances on the environment and on human health. The RoHS statements underline that GrapheneUP® SE’s graphene substances comply with the permitted concentration values of the ten designated substances and that they do not contain PBB or PBDE (Annex II of the RoHS directive).

Our Proprietary Production Process

We produce few layer graphene flakes with a new proprietary non-oxidative direct exfoliation process in gas phase that transform graphite or other carbon materials into graphene in less than a second. The raw materials used in the production process are available in the market without any kind of limitations, either in terms of quantity and of geographical location.

We do NOT use oxidants and we preserve the quality of graphene.

We strongly believe that this new approach can dramatically and reliably outperforms existing technologies at a reasonable cost and contribute to speed up the development of new graphene-based products into the market.

Single Step Manifacture of High Quality Few-layer Graphene


innovative proprietary process, non-oxidative exfoliation method


environmental friendly process, low carbon footprint


the most scalable production method in the market

No Post Treatment

functionalization of graphene takes place in the one-step reaction

One-Step Process

from graphite to graphene in a one step fast reaction (less than 1 second)

Stable Process

homogeneous and stable quality, batch to batch consistency, full quality control on each batch

Save Energy

can be produced at room temperature in normal atmosphere

Bulk Production

potential production over 160 tons/year, largest one in Europe

High Yield

high yield conversion of graphite to graphene

No Oxidation

NO oxidation,
NO use of acids or oxidants

Trade-offs Between Different Methods of Production

There exists a trade-off between manufacturing volume and graphene quality.
The CVD and epitaxial methods produce high-quality graphene sheets but have a low scalability.

Our innovative process assures a homogeneous high-quality with a scalable production.

of GUP®

“It is not enough to buy a good quality graphene, it is important to use graphene properly functionalized that suits your specific application”

Graphene can be incorporated into a variety of materials to enhance the mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of the overall

One of the key factors in creating graphene-hybrid composite materials lies in the coupling between the base material and graphene. To ensure that its superior properties can be blended into the host material, it may need to be functionalized; this is where compatible chemical groups are added to the material surface to enable effective graphene dispersion.

The covalent bonding of organic functional groups brings several advantages. For example, enables the dispersion of graphene in solutions, modifies the graphene’s electrical properties, and can even open a bandgap and create a robust bonding mechanism between the graphene and the matrix.

The chemical modification on the surface of graphene opens new properties, allowing good interaction with the targeted matrix. One of the main advantages of our production method is that the functionalization of graphene takes place during the one-step reaction without the need for any further modification.
Our innovative production process gives us the opportunity to introduce into the market a new generation of ground-breaking functionalized graphene-based commercial products.

4 Keys for a Successful Product

To create graphene-based products for the real market it is not enough to buy good quality graphene, 4 key points are needed and this is what we do at GrapheneUP®

Real Graphene

Due to the lack of standards for graphene production there are a lot of products in the market labelled like graphene but that cannot be classified as graphene. Using products that are falsely advertised has been stalling the development of the future applications. Our graphene is real few- layer graphene based on the ISO/TS 80004-13:2017.

Bulk Production

To ensure the success of a graphene-based product or application it is essential to have the guarantee that the graphene will be available in the right quantity necessary for the sales of the product in bulk quantities.


One of the key factors to create graphene-hybrid composite materials lies in the coupling between the base material and graphene. To ensure that its superior properties can be blended into the host material, it may need to be functionalised. This is where compatible chemical groups are added to the material surface to enable effective dispersion of the graphene.

Proper Dispersion

A prerequisite for property enhancement of graphene- based composite materials is the uniform dispersion of graphene in the matrix; however, the ultra-high specific surface area of graphene results in high van der Waals forces and thus induces a strong tendency to reaggregate. A well dispersed state ensures availability of maximum surface area of filler, which will affect the neighbouring polymer chains and, consequently, the properties of the whole composite.

Few-Layer Graphene
GUP® 100 g

of GUP®



Marine & Nautical

Military & Defense



Batteries & Ultracapacitors

Environmental Remediation




Paints & Coatings

Packaging Industry

Oil & Gas


Food Industry